This could be in part attributable to their increased cellular uptake and bioavailability; moreover, no toxicity was associated with SDK and SK treatment in vivo as well as in a neuronal model of oxidative stress. Because of their reduced toxicity, we speculate that their use may help circumvent the side effects of MTM.We have identified a battery of genes that are regulated in response to protective doses of MTM. We speculate that, when cells are challenged with oxidative stress, oncogenic signaling pathways become critical mediators of the apoptotic response and that MTM functions to prevent these pathways from tipping the balance toward death. Additionally, dysregulation of multiple genes that mediate postmitotic degeneration is also observed in carcinogenesis. Cyanocobalamin Lossoffunction mutations in ataxia telangiectasia gene, ATM, lead to degeneration of the nigrostriatal neurons and increase the risk of breast cancer and leukemia, whereas gainoffunction mutations in the amyloid precursor protein. Our findings suggest that MTM functions at the crossroad between transformation and neurodegeneration, fit the notion that transformation in cancer and neurodegeneration share pathways, and are in agreement with the proposed notion that, in postmitotic neurons, clonal expansion has been supplanted by clonal deletion to avoid tumors from developing all over the CNS during aging. In conclusion, it would be of interest to determine whether aging or disease creates mutation hotspots in oncogenes that would drive the neurons toward death.Biochemistry. Int J Dev Neurosci. For example, aberrations in protein synthesis are commonly encountered in established cancers, and disruption by mutation or overexpression of translation factors can cause cellular transformation.We previously demonstrated that the activity of eukaryotic elongation factor kinase was markedly increased in several forms of malignancy and that nonspecific inhibitors of this enzyme promoted cell death.On the basis of the predicted amino acid sequence of eEF kinase deduced from the cloned cDNA, we hypothesized that inhibitors of prokaryotic histidine kinases might also inhibit the activity of eEF kinase.We describe herein the screening of a series of imidazolium histidine kinase inhibitors and the identification of an active lead compound, NH.NH inhibited eEF kinase activity in vitro, blocked the phosphorylation of eEF in intact cells, and showed relative selectivity over other protein kinases: protein kinase C. To determine whether these compounds also inhibited eEF kinase, we tested methyl imidazolium derivatives for inhibition of the enzyme activity and cancer cell growth.The compounds belonged to three structural series, which differ by the substitutions on the N imidazolium nitrogen: NHI, unsubstituted; NHI, benzyl group and NHI, butyl group.All other cell lines were grown in DMEM supplemented with fetal bovine serum, unitsml Glipizide penicillin, and mgml streptomycin.All additional steps were carried out at C and as per manufacturer s protocol. Briefly, cell lysates were centrifuged at, gfor min.The column was washed three times with bed volumes of PBS and eluted with mM glutathione elution bufferml of bed volume.We previously demonstrated that inhibition of eEF kinase by a nonspecific inhibitor, rottlerin, or degradation of the kinase after disruption of its complex with heat shock protein by geldanamycin interface and inhibited the growth of a variety of cancer cell lines.